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Ethics, Morality & Mercy - Ahadith of the Prophet ﷺ

  1. Whosoever harms a believer has harmed me, and whosoever harms me has harmed Allah. [Al-Tabarani in Al-Awsat]
  2. Whosoever fears Allah, Allah  will make everything fear him, and whosoever does not fear Allah, He will make him fear everything. [Al-Hakim]
  3. Whosoever loves for the sake of Allah, hates for the sake of Allah, gives for the sake of Allah and withholds for the sake of Allah then his faith has been completed.
  4. Whosoever loves a group of people, Allah shall resurrect him with them. [Al-Tabarani in al-Kabir]
  5. Whosoever ties the Ihram of hajj or Umrah from al-Masjid al-Aqsa then he will be  just like the day his mother gave birth to him. [Abd al-Razzaq in his Musannaf]
  6. Whosoever looks after an orphan shall be with me in Jannah, just like this (joining his forefinger and middle finger together). [Al-Tirmidhi]
  7. Whosoever revives these four nights then Jannah is binding upon him; the night of al-Tarwiya (8th of Dhu al-Hijjah), the night of al-‘Arafah (9th of Dhu al-Hijjah), the night of al-Nahr (10th of Dhu al-Hijjah) and the night of al-Fitr (1st of Shawwal). [Kanz al-'Ummal]
  8. Whosoever brings infertile land to life, for him is a reward therein, and if a creature eats from it, that shall be charity for him. [Ahmad in al-Musnad]
  9. Whosoever revives my Sunnah has loved me, and whosoever loves me will be with me in Jannah. [Al-Tirmidhi]
  10. Whosoever frightens a believer then it is a right of Allah that He shall not save him from the frights of the Day of Resurrection. [Al-Tabarani in al-Awsat]
  11. Whosoever takes another’s piece of land unjustly, he will be made to sink down the seven earths on the day of resurrection. [Al-Bukhari]
  12. Whosoever has love for his (Muslim) brother in his heart and does not reveal it to him then he has betrayed him. [Kanz al-'Ummal]
  13. Whosoever takes intoxicants then Allah shall not accept forty days of his prayers. [Al-Tirmidhi]
  14. Whosoever builds a Masjid seeking by it the pleasure of Allah, Allah will build for him likewise in Jannah. [Al-Bukhari]
  15. Whosoever removes harm from the Masjid, Allah shall build for him a house in Jannah.
  16. Whosoever removes a harmful thing from the path of a Muslim, then Allah shall write for him a reward, and for whom He writes a reward, he will be entered into Jannah. [Al-Tabarani in al-Awsat]
  17. Whosoever makes an error or commits a sin, thereafter feels remorseful, then that (remorse) shall compensate for it. [Al-Bayhaqi in Shu'ab al-Iman]
  18. Whosoever dedicates forty days for the sake of Allah, the wellsprings of wisdom shall appear from his heart to his tongue. [Abu Nu'aym in al-Hilya]
  19. Whosoever calls the Adhan for seven years seeking reward; Allah shall write for him freedom from Hell. [Al-Tirmidhi]
  20. Whosoever calls the Adhan for one year not seeking any (worldly) reward, shall be summoned on the Day of Resurrection. He will stand on the Door of Jannah and it will be said to him, ‘Intercede for whom you wish’. [Ibn 'Asakir]
  21. Whosoever commits a sin knowing he has a Lord who if He wishes can forgive or punish him then it is a right upon Allah to forgive him. [Al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak]
  22. Whosoever displays to people fear (of Allah), greater than he really has, then he is a hypocrite. [Kanz al-'Ummal]
  23. Whosoever pleases his (Muslim) parents has pleased Allah, and whosoever angers his parents has angered Allah. [Kanz al-'Ummal]
  24. Whosoever increased his knowledge (of religion) and did not increase his detachment from the world has not but distanced himself from Allah. [Al-Daylami in Musnad al-Firdaws]
  25. Whosoever performs ablution in extreme cold conditions will obtain double the rewards. [Al-Khatib in al-Tarikh]
  26. Whosoever can protect one’s religion and one’s honour using his wealth should do so. [Al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak]
  27. Whosoever amongst you can cover his believing brother using the edge of his cloak should do so. [Al-Daylami in Musnad al-Firdaws]
  28. Whosoever makes haste shall err. [Al-Tirmidhi]
  29. Whosoever seeks forgiveness of Allah after each prayer by praying three times:
    أَسْتَغَفِرُ اللَّهَ العَظِيْمَ الَّذِيْ لَا إِلٰهَ إلَا هُوَ الحَيُّ القَيُّوْمُ وأَتوْبُ إِلَيْهِ
    Astaghfirullah al-Adheem al-Ladhi La Ilaha Illa Huwa al-hayyu al-Qayyumu wa Atoobu Ilayhi

    his sins will be forgiven, even though he tried to run away from the army. [Ibn al-Sunni in 'Amal al-Yawm wa al-Laylah]
  30. Whosoever seeks forgiveness on behalf of believing men and women, Allah shall write for him a good deed (equal to) each believing man and woman. [Al-Tabarani in al-Kabir]
  31. Whosoever seeks forgiveness twenty seven times in a day for the believing men and women then he will become from those who are answered and by whom the dwellers of earth are given sustenance. [Al-Tabarani in al-Kabir]
  32. Whosoever begins his day with goodness and ends it with goodness then Allah says to the Angels, ‘Do not write the (minor) sins between the two’. [Kanz al-'Ummal]
  33. Whosoever listens to music will not be allowed to hear the sound of al-Ruhaniyyin. It was asked, ‘Who are al-Ruhaniyyin?’ He (SallAllahu Alayhi wa Sallam) said, ‘The reciters from the people of Paradise’. [Al-Tirmidhi]
  34. Whosoever completes the recitation of the Quran in the morning, the angels pray for him till the evening. And whosoever completes the recitation of the Quran in the evening, the angles pray for him till the morning. [Abu Nu'aym in al-Hilya]
  35. Whosoever carries for my people forty Ahadith, Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Judgement as a Jurist and a Scholar. [Ibn 'Adi in al-Kamil]

— — —
Excerpted from
Al-Jaami' al-Saghir min Hadith al-Bashir al-Nadhir
by: Imam Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (Alayhir Rahmah)

Translated by: Muhammad Husayn al-Qadiri [info@alihya.org.uk]

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کیا اسلام سرحدون کو تسلیم نہیں کرتا؟ Muslims and international borders

If the Hudabia peace treaty is analysed critically, the concept of borders clearly emerges.
The 2nd Caliph Omar Khattab, desired a wall between his state and Iran, so that no one could cross it. He wanted to avoid war, later he had to go for it.
Normal friendly relations with peaceful non Muslims are allowed by Quran.
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Muslim-Non Muslim Relations: Friendship & Alliance

Taking one verse [Ayah] of Quran to use it to support some point of view is unfair. One should take all Ayas of Quran on particular subject then derive complete meaning, more over translation of Arabic with multiple meanings be kept in view.


لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَةً لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا ۖ وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُم مَّوَدَّةً لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّا نَصَارَىٰ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ ﴿٨٢﴾

یقیناً آپ ایمان والوں کا سب سے زیاده دشمن یہودیوں اور مشرکوں کو پائیں گے اور ایمان والوں     سے سب سے زیاده دوستی کے قریب آپ یقیناً انہیں پائی
گے جو اپنے آپ کو نصاریٰ کہتے ہیں، یہ اس لئے کہ ان میں علما اور عبادت کے لئے گوشہ نشین افراد پائے جاتے ہیں اور اس وجہ سے کہ وه تکبر نہیں کرتے
(82 ) 5:82سورة المائدة

عَسَى اللَّـهُ أَن يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ عَادَيْتُم مِّنْهُم مَّوَدَّةً ۚ وَاللَّـهُ قَدِيرٌ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ ﴿٧﴾ لَّا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّـهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ ﴿٨﴾ إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّـهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَىٰ إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَن تَوَلَّوْهُمْ ۚ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿٩﴾

Quran 60:7-9

بعید نہیں کہ اللہ کبھی تمہارے اور اُن لوگوں کے درمیان محبت ڈال دے جن سے آج تم نے دشمنی مول لی ہے اللہ بڑی قدرت رکھتا ہے اور وہ غفور و رحیم ہے (7) اللہ تمیں اس بات سے نہیں روکتا کہ تم ان لوگوں کے ساتھ نیکی اور انصاف کا برتاؤ کرو جنہوں نے دین کے معاملہ میں تم سے جنگ نہیں کی ہے اور تمہیں تمہارے گھروں سے نہیں نکالا ہے اللہ انصاف کرنے والوں کو پسند کرتا ہے (8) وہ تمہیں جس بات سے روکتا ہے وہ تو یہ ہے کہ تم اُن لوگوں سے دوستی کرو جنہوں نے تم سے دین کے معاملہ میں جنگ کی ہے اور تمہیں تمہارے گھروں سے نکالا ہے اور تمہارے اخراج میں ایک دوسرے کی مدد کی ہے اُن سے جو لوگ دوستی کریں وہی ظالم ہیں (9

“Allah only forbids you to make friendship with those who fought you on account of your faith and drove you out of your homes and backed up others in your expulsion. Those who will take them for friends are indeed the wrongdoers”. (Qur’an;60:9).

Some translators have mixed up the meanings of Arabic verb waliya (from which the noun wali, pl. awliya‘, is derived) which need to be understood. It signifies, primarily, the nearness or closeness of one thing to another: Although the term wali, when applied to God, as well as to the relationship between one created being and another, is often used in the Qur’an in the sense of “helper”, “friend”, “protector”, “guardian“, etc., none of these secondary meanings can properly – i.e., without offending against the reverence due to God – describe man’s attitude to, or relationship with, Him. Thus, God is spoken of in the Qur’an (2:257 and 3:68) as being “near unto (wali) those who believe” Consequently, reference to the believers as awliya’ of God is best rendered as “they who are close to God”, in the sense of their being always conscious of Him. Mostly in the context of non Muslims ‘wali’ is to be understood to mean ‘protector friend’ or ‘guardian’, how some one opposed to your faith can be taken as protector or guardian?

Muslims have been cautioned against intrigue of enemies, because initially the hypocrites of Medina and Jews living around Medina, were playing double game of deception, some verses considered as discriminatory against non believers not to take them as wali, in each verse their negative behaviors is cited as the reason, which is fully understandable:

“O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy Awliyaa [protector, friends] Do ye give them friendship when they disbelieve in that truth which hath come unto you, driving out the messenger and you because ye believe in Allah, your Lord? .”[Qur’an; 60:1]

“Let not the believers make unbelievers their awliyaa‘ [protectors, allies, friends] rather than the believers; anyone who does so will have nothing to hope for from Allah – except if you do so as a precaution to protect yourselves against their tyranny in this way. But God warns you to beware of Him: for with God is all journeys’ end.”[Qur’an; 3:28]

“Have you not seen the ones who have befriended those people who are under the wrath of Allah? They are neither on your side nor yet on theirs and they knowingly swear to falsehood.”(Qur’an;58:14).

“O you who have attained to faith! Do not take for your friends such as mock at your, faith and make a jest of it -be they from among those who have been vouchsafed revelation before your time, or [from among] those who deny the truth [of revelation as such] – but remain conscious of God, if you are [truly] believers: for, when you call to prayer, they mock at it and make a jest of it – simply because they are people who do not use their reason.” .”[Qur’an; 5:57-58]

The Faith is a fundamental matter in the lives of Muslims, their associations and friendships will naturally be with those who share their Faith. More than anything else, it obviously alludes to a “moral alliance” with the deniers of the truth: that is to say, to an adoption of their way of life in preference to the way of life of the believers, in the hope of being “honored”, or accepted as equals, by the former. Since an imitation of the way of life of confirmed unbelievers must obviously conflict with the moral principles demanded by true faith, it unavoidably leads to a gradual abandonment of those principles. In ordinary every-day affairs of business, Muslims are asked to seek the help of Believers rather than Unbelievers. Only in this way can the community be strong and united. But where there is no question of preference, or where in self-defence they have to take the assistance of those not belonging to their Faith, that is permissible.

“O believers! Take neither Jews nor Christians as your protecting friends: they are only protecting friends of one another. Whoever of you disobeys this commandment will be counted as one of them. Surely Allah does not guide the wrongdoers.” [Qur’an; 5:51].

According to most of the commentators (e.g., Tabari), this means that each of these two communities extends genuine friendship only to its own adherents – i.e., the Jews to the Jews, and the Christians to the Christians – and cannot, therefore, be expected to be really friendly towards the followers of the Qur’an. This prohibition of a “moral alliance” with non-Muslims does not constitute an injunction against normal, friendly relations with such of them as are well-disposed towards Muslims. It should be borne in mind that the term wali has several shades of meaning: “ally”, “friend”, “helper”, “protector”, etc. The particular choice depends upon context. It is gets more clear:

“It may well be that Allah will put love between you and those with whom you are now at odds because of the order which is given to you, for Allah is All-Powerful, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. Allah does not forbid you to be kind and equitable to those who had neither fought against your faith nor driven you out of your homes. In fact Allah loves the equitable.” [Qur’an; 60:7-8].

“nearest in affection to the believers are those who say: “We are Christians.” That is because among them there are men that are priests and monks, who do not behave arrogantly.” [Qur’an; 5:82].

Muslims are cautioned to take non believers as protectors, [Wali] due to the negative and hostile behaviour of most of non believers. However normal friendship and working relationship with those with affable attitude is not forbidden. While forming any opinion, especially the non Muslims are requested to keep all the verses of Qur’an on the subject in view, there is no abrogation:

“The Words of your Lord have been completed with credibility and justice; there is no way to change His Words. He is the Hearer, the Knower”[Qur’an;6:115].


After the conquest of Mecca, the Muslims stayed in the city for two weeks when a news soon broke out that a big army had been mobilized in the valley of Hunain to attack Mecca and to undo the victory of the Muslims. This time Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) assembled a force of twelve thousand warriors, which included two thousand Meccans [some consider they converted to Islam, while other opine as not]. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was forced to make necessary preparations for defence. He felt the necessity of borrowing money for provisions and war supplies, therefore, according to "Masnad" (Cairo, 1895, 4th vol., p. 36) by Ahmad bin Hanbal (d. 241/855), "He took a loan of 30,000 dhirams from Abdullah bin Rabiah, a step-brother of Abu Jahl, who was very rich." He also wanted from Safwan bin Umayyah, who had not yet accepted Islam, to lend him the weapons of war. Safwan offered one hundred coats of mail together with their accessories. On 6th Shawal, 8/January 27, 630,Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) marched to Hunain to crush the powers of the four savage tribes, viz. Thaqif, Hawazin, Sa'd and Jasam .....

It included non Muslims, pagans, Christians & Jews as citizens of city state of Mediana, within the fold of one community—the Ummah. The non-Muslims included in the ummah had the following rights:
1.The security of God is equal for all groups,
2. Non-Muslim members have equal political and cultural rights as Muslims. They will have autonomy and freedom of religion.
3. Non-Muslims will take up arms against the enemy of the Ummah and share the cost of war. There is to be no treachery between the two.
4. Non-Muslims will not be obliged to take part in religious wars of the Muslims.
Please comment or verify ......



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Riba : Charging more on credit sales (Murabaha) is permissible?

Riba is translated as usuryInterest. Riba is forbidden in Islamic economic jurisprudence (fiqh) and considered as a major sin. Simply, unjust gains in trade or business, generally through exploitation. There are two types of riba discussed by Islamic jurists: an increase in capital without any services provided and speculation (Maisir), which is prohibited by the Qur'an, and commodity exchanges in unequal quantities, also prohibited in the Qur'an.
The Qur'an deals with riba in 12 verses, the word appearing eight times in total, three times in 2:275, and once in 2:276, 2:278, 3:130, 4:161 and 30:39.

Usury is the practice of making unethical or immoral monetary loans. Depending on the local laws or social mores, a loan may be considered usurious because of excessive or abusive interest rates. According to some jurisdictions and customs, simply charging any interest at all can be considered usury. Other terms used for usury or usurers include loan shark, as well as Shylock which is sometimes used with an antisemitic connotation
The Qur'an states the following on riba:
“That they took riba, though they were forbidden and that they devoured men's substance wrongfully – We have prepared for those among men who reject faith a grievous punishment (Quran 4:161)”
“Those who charge riba are in the same position as those controlled by the devil's influence. This is because they claim that riba is the same as commerce. However, God permits commerce, and prohibits riba. Thus, whoever heeds this commandment from his Lord, and refrains from riba, he may keep his past earnings, and his judgement rests with God. As for those who persist in riba, they incur Hell, wherein they abide forever (Quran 2:275)”
“God condemns riba, and blesses charities. God dislikes every disbeliever, guilty. Lo! those who believe and do good works and establish worship and pay the poor-due, their reward is with their Lord and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. O you who believe, you shall observe God and refrain from all kinds of riba, if you are believers. If you do not, then expect a war from God and His messenger. But if you repent, you may keep your capitals, without inflicting injustice, or incurring injustice. If the debtor is unable to pay, wait for a better time. If you give up the loan as a charity, it would be better for you, if you only knew. (Quran 2:276-280)
“O you who believe, you shall not take riba, compounded over and over. Observe God, that you may succeed. (Quran 3:130)”
“And for practising riba, which was forbidden, and for consuming the people's money illicitly. We have prepared for the disbelievers among them painful retribution. (Quran 4:161)
“The riba that is practised to increase some people's wealth, does not gain anything at God. But if people give to charity, seeking God's pleasure, these are the ones who receive their reward many fold. (Quran 30:39).
Riba is mentioned in a number of hadith:
“Jabir said that Muhammad (pbuh) cursed the accepter of usury and its payer, and one who records it, and the two witnesses, and he said: They are all equal.”
“Narrated Abu: We used to be given mixed dates (from the booty) and used to sell (barter) two Sas of those dates) for one Sa (of good dates). The Prophet said (to us), "No (bartering of) two Sas for one Sa nor two Dirhams for one Dirham is permissible", (as that is a kind of usury). (See Hadith No. 405)”
“Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: Allah's Apostle said, "The bartering of gold for silver is Riba, (usury), except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and wheat grain for wheat grain is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and barley for barley is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount."
“Narrated Ibn 'Umar: Muhammad said, "The selling of wheat for wheat is Riba (usury) except if it is handed from hand to hand and equal in amount. Similarly the selling of barley for barley, is Riba except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount, and dates for dates is usury except if it is from hand to hand and equal in amount.

“Narrated Abu Hurayrah: Muhammad said: If anyone makes two transactions combined in one bargain, he should have the lesser of the two or it will involve usury.

Is charging more on credit sales legally permissible in Islam? In my opinion it is taking advantage of the person who does not have ready cash. On the other hand if the trader resorts to cash sales and has a high turn over he can make more profit. Considering this fact he charges more for foregoing his profits and blocking his cap
ital in a credit sale. The buyer pays for the opportunity cost foregone by the seller. Most of the time this is translated into the time value of money and the market interest rate for the time the payment is kept outstanding is loaded in the sale price of the product. In the above, the seller has to show benevolence in a credit sale for his Muslim brother by not charging more then the prevailing market price. Please elaborate the issue in the light of Quran and Ahadith since the Shariah Advisor's of Banks & financial institutions consider higher prices charged in a Murabaha transaction lawful and do not consider it as Riba.
Response:I have attempted to understand the point of view of these scholars, but have never been able to get convinced that inflated price in credit sale (Murabaha) is acceptable in Islam. The reasoning in this issue, as indeed in many other issues on Islam, could be understood either by giving technical or philosophical arguments. Technical arguments should positively present reasons from Qur'an and Sunnah to prove that despite the apparent similarity of Murabaha with Riba, the former has been allowed in Islam.

From whatever I have heard and read in the literature of the people who consider it legal, there is no technical argument at their disposal to make that claim. The Council of Islamic Ideology allowed Murabaha as a way of doing financial business only as a second best alternative. One can see a definite lack of conviction in their statement while proposing Murabaha. The Report says; "...it needs to be pointed out that these alternatives [i.e. Murabaha etc.] ... are no more than a second best solution from the viewpoint of an ideal Islamic system."

From the point of view of philosophical understanding of Murabaha's acceptability, we have to look into the reason why riba has been prohibited in Islam and find out whether Murabaha fares any better in that respect. The apparent reason why the Almighty has prohibited riba is that the lender demands from the borrower that he should pay back the principal amount to him plus a pre-determined interest even if he is in no position to do it. This is quite clearly showing lender's complete lack of concern for the plight of the borrower. If during the period of the loan, the borrower gets bankrupt, the lender would still demand not just the principal but interest as well. It is quite unimaginable how a humane soul can ever get into that kind of a financial arrangement.

In view of the above, when we look at the Murabaha arrangement, it appears to be completely the same. In case of Murabaha, the borrower, euphemistically the buyer, acquires an asset from the lender, the seller. Because the borrower/buyer cannot afford to purchase the asset on cash, he goes for this credit arrangement with inflated price. Call him by whatever name, the buyer/borrower is exactly in the same state of helplessness if the relevant asset gets destroyed. The lender/seller would demand from him the orgiinal spot price (principal) plus the mark up (interest/riba). His plight, like in the case of riba arrangement, would fall to deaf ears, because the 'pious' lender in this case has used the right terminology and has not given a riba-based loan but has entered into an Islamically legitimate Murabaha transaction. If your conscience is satisfied that this kind of an eye-wash is halal, please go ahead and support it. I, on my part, don't have the courage to do that.

The supporters of Murabaha present two conditions in it which they think distinguishes it, to them quite clearly, from riba. One condition they present is that unlike in the case of riba where cash or cash-like circulating asset is involved, in Murabaha a real commodity is involved. The other condition is that in Murabaha they don't allow mark-up on mark-up, where as, they believe, in riba interest on interest is also charged.

As for the condition of real asset, it really is inconsequential whether the commodity is real or unreal. The important thing is that if the commodity in question is destroyed while the borrower/buyer hasn't paid the amount, who is going to be responsible for the loss? The answer is obviously that it would be the borrower. How then is it different fro riba? What difference has the realness of the commodity caused to the transaction? What relief has been offered to the borrower/buyer?On the point that in Murabaha mark-up is charged only once and no further mark-up is charged even when the bowwower/buyer defaults, I would say that not committing a double sin doesn't make a single sin valid. It's like claiming that since General Pervez Musharraf has done many good things after assuming power therefore his military coup was legitimate. What is wrong is wrong and no amount of virtue following that wrong can make it right.

I would also like to point out that this policy of not charging mark-up on default is not even being practised by the institutions who are doing what they call Islamic banking. What they do is that they charge additional mark-up from the defaulters but don't add it to the revenues of their banks but give it on charity instead. In other words, they do charge what they themselves consider haram but give it somebody else. How could that be justified?
SOURCE: http://www.khalidzaheer.com/qa/109

Instruments of Islamic banking in operation:  http://jang.com.pk/thenews/may2008-weekly/busrev-05-05-2008/p6.htm

Non-equivalence of interest and Riba? Other Point of View.......

Elaborating the contents of verse 39 of Surah Al-Rome, Abdullah Yusuf Ali defines Riba as “any increase sought through illegal means, such as usury, bribery, profiteering, fraudulent trading, etc. All unlawful grasping of wealth at other people’s expense is condemned” as it represents Riba.

Riba is generally the outcome of the weakness, ignorance or lack of bargaining power of one transacting party which is abused by the other.

Riba pertains not only to capital but also to wage payments, rent accruals and profit charges. Under this topology, an industrialist or a landlord who pays his workers less than their “due” share of wages, a businessmen or trader who fails to pay the taxes due to him and a doctor or a lawyer who charges “abnormally high fees” are all indulgent in the practice of Riba.

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Quranic Prayers, Dua Supplications

1. Our Lord! Grant us good in this world and good in the life to come and keep us safe from the torment of the Fire (2:201)

2. Our Lord! Bestow on us endurance and make our foothold sure and give us help against those who reject faith. (2:250)

3. Our Lord! Take us not to task if we forget or fall into error. (2:286)

4. Our Lord! Lay not upon us such a burden as You did lay upon those before us. (2:286)

5. Our Lord! Impose not on us that which we have not the strength to bear, grant us forgiveness and have mercy on us. You are our Protector. Help us against those who deny the truth. (2:286)

6. Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate from the truth after You have guided us, and bestow upon us mercy from Your grace. Verily You are the Giver of bounties without measure. (3:8)

7. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and the lack of moderation in our doings, and make firm our steps and succour us against those who deny the truth.(3:147)

8. Our Lord! Whomsoever You shall commit to the Fire, truly You have brought [him] to disgrace, and never will wrongdoers find any helpers (3:192)

9. Our Lord! Behold we have heard a voice calling us unto faith: "Believe in your Lord" as we have believed. (3:193)

10. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and efface our bad deeds and take our souls in the company of the righteous. (3:193)

11. Our Lord! And grant us that which you have promised to us by Your messengers and save us from shame on the Day of Judgement. Verily You never fail to fulfill Your promise. (3:194)

12. Our Lord! We have sinned against ourselves, and unless You grant us forgiveness and bestow Your mercy upon us, we shall most certainly be lost! (7:23)

13. Our Lord! Place us not among the people who have been guilty of evildoing. (7:47)

14. Our Lord! Lay open the truth between us and our people, for You are the best of all to lay open the truth. (7:89)

15. Our Lord! Pour out on us patience and constancy, and make us die as those who have surrendered themselves unto You. (7:126)

16. Our Lord! Make us not a trial for the evildoing folk, and save as by Your mercy from people who deny the truth (10:85-86)

17. Our Lord! You truly know all that we may hide [in our hearts] as well as all that we bring into the open, for nothing whatever, be it on earth or in heaven, remains hidden from Allah (14:38)

18. Our Lord! Bestow on us mercy from Your presence and dispose of our affairs for us in the right way. (18:10)

19. Our Lord! Grant that our spouses and our offspring be a comfort to our eyes, and give us the grace to lead those who are conscious of You. (25:74)

20. Our Lord! You embrace all things within Your Grace and Knowledge, forgive those who repent and follow Your path, and ward off from them the punishment of Hell. (40:7)

21. Our Lord! Make them enter the Garden of Eden which You have promised to them, and to the righteous from among their fathers, their wives and their offspring, for verily You are alone the Almighty and the truly Wise. (40:8)

22. Our Lord! Relieve us of the torment, for we do really believe. (44:12)

23. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins as well as those of our brethren who proceeded us in faith and let not our hearts entertain any unworthy thoughts or feelings against [any of] those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness and Most Merciful (59:10)

24. Our Lord! In You we have placed our trust, and to You do we turn in repentance, for unto You is the end of all journeys. (60:4)

25. Our Lord! Perfect our light for us and forgive us our sins, for verily You have power over all things. (66:8)


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Is Quran from Satan?

A common allegation, which was raised by polytheists of Makka, responded by Quran is again raised by Christian brothers:

"Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was under the influence of Satan, who dictated Quran."

Let's analyze this claim, allegation logically. As it is said the "the taste of pudding is in eating".
Jesus Christ said:

Matthew 7:16-18
"You will know them by their fruits. Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they? "So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit. "A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit.…

Matthew 12:33
"Make a tree good and its fruit will be good, or make a tree bad and its fruit will be bad, for a tree is recognized by its fruit.

Matthew 12:35
A good man brings good things out of the good stored up in him, and an evil man brings evil things out of the evil stored up in him.

If Quran was from Satan, the teachings should reflect the same, there should be praises for Satan and appreciation not curses. All messengers of God from Noah, Abraham, Jacob, Moses, to Jesus Christ preached : Obedience and worship of One God. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) did not preach worship of 2 or 3 gods or Gods. His message is the same monotheistic: Obedience and surrender to the will of God [one word for it in Arabic word ISLAM] hence it is rightly claimed that the religion of all TRUE messengers of God is same. God is "All Knowing" how can a true God change His basic message? Change was only in law. Shari'a according to the people and time. Now it stands resolved for ever for humanity.

The Quran makes it clear that God is the author of the Quran…not Satan:

The devils did not bring it (the Quran) down. It is not meet for them, nor is it in their power, Lo! verily they are banished from the hearing.

The Most Beneficent (Allah)! Has taught (you mankind) the Qur’an (by His Mercy).

The Quran opposes Satan as a staunch enemy

2:168 :
O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and wholesome in the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Lo! he is an open enemy for you.

7:200 :
And if a slander from the devil wound thee, then seek refuge in Allah. Lo! He is Hearer, Knower.

“Whenever you read the Qur’an seek refuge with Allah from Satan, the accursed”

 Did I not charge you, O ye sons of Adam, that ye worship not the devil – Lo! he is your open foe! -

Now anyone who studies the Quran and knows about its scientific miracles , prophecies , falsification tests etc. can do nothing but conclude that it came from a supernatural source, the God.

If Jesus Christ heard such allegation he would have rebuked it just like how he rebuked the Pharisees who accused him of casting out Satan with the power of Satan…

Mark 3:22-26:

"And the teachers of the law who came down from Jerusalem said, “He is possessed by Beelzebub[c]! By the prince of demons he is driving out demons.”  So Jesus called them and spoke to them in parables: “How can Satan drive out Satan? If a kingdom is divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.  If a house is divided against itself, that house cannot stand. And if Satan opposes himself and is divided, he cannot stand; his end has come."

The story is repeated in the gospel of Matthew…

Matthew 12:24-26: 24
But when the Pharisees heard this, they said, “It is only by Beelzebub,[d] the prince of demons, that this fellow drives out demons.” 25Jesus knew their thoughts and said to them, “Every kingdom divided against itself will be ruined, and every city or household divided against itself will not stand. 26If Satan drives out Satan, he is divided against himself. How then can his kingdom stand?

Devil tempted Adam, Eve got them out of gardens of bliss , tempted Jesus Christ but was rebuked:

“Away from me, Satan! For it is written: ‘Worship the Lord your God, and serve him only.”[Matthew 4:10]

The disappointed Satan later got Paul in vision [as did David Koresh and Jim Jones] and possessed him. It is not allegation its proved from Bible:

Paul under Satanic influence:

According to 2 Corinthians 12:6-9, Paul, in the Bible says:
“But I refrain, so no one will think more of me than is warranted by what I do or say, or because of these surpassingly great revelations. Therefore, in order to keep me from becoming conceited, I was given a thorn in my flesh, a messenger of Satan, to torment me. ” -2 Corinthians 12:6-7

”According to ‘Saint’ Paul, God sent a Messenger of Satan to teach him the reality of grace.

If it is a Messenger from God,why then, does Paul call it a Messenger of Satan?
Since it is from God, shouldn’t it be a Messenger of God? Since Paul calls Messengers sent by Christ to teach him grace, Satan, and since Paul is tormented and Christ is unwilling to remove the ‘Messenger of Satan’,

then we must conclude that Paul was a man possessed by some demon. His teachings contradict Jesus Christ, so it suffice to prove the Satanic influence:

"A good man brings good things out of the good stored up in him, and an evil man brings evil things out of the evil stored up in him."(Matthew 12:35)

The dubious VISION of Paul and conversion story is exposed due to conflicting account at Act, chapters 9,22 & 26. Then the influence of Messenger of Satan, resulted in such doctrines which Jesus Chrsit never preached, he said:

Matthew 7:21-26:
“Not everyone who says to me, ‘Master, Master ‘will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven; but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. Many will tell me in that day, ‘Master, master didn’t we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?’ Then I will tell them, ‘I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity.‘ “Everyone therefore who hears these words of mine, and does them, I will liken him to a wise man, who built his house on a rock. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it didn’t fall, for it was founded on the rock. Everyone who hears these words of mine, and doesn’t do them will be like a foolish man, who built his house on the sand.”

“For this people’s heart has become calloused; they hardly hear with their ears, and they have closed their eyes. Otherwise they might see with their eyes, hear with their ears, understand with their hearts and turn, and I would heal them.” [Matthew 13:15]

“But everyone who hears these words of mine and does not put them into practice is like a foolish man who built his house on sand” [Matthew 7:26]

“And He said to them, “Rightly did Isaiah prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written: ‘THIS PEOPLE HONORS ME WITH THEIR LIPS, BUT THEIR HEART IS FAR AWAY FROM ME. ‘And in vain they pay reverence [Greek sebomai sebomai, revere, worship, adore] to me as they teach doctrines of commandments of the sons of men.’ “Neglecting the commandment of God, you hold to the tradition of men.” [Mark 7:6-10]

These arguments should satisfy our Christian brothers and create awareness in their hearts to follow true teachings of Jesus Christ not of the Paul.

"But nay! I swear by all that ye see . And all that ye see not. That it is indeed the speech of an illustrious messenger. It is not poet's speech - little is it that ye believe! Nor diviner's speech - little is it that ye remember! It [Quran] is a revelation from the Lord of the Worlds.  And if he had invented false sayings concerning Us, We assuredly had taken him by the right hand. And then severed his life-artery, And not one of you could have held Us off from him. And lo! it is a warrant unto those who ward off (evil). And lo! We know that some among you will deny (it). And lo! it is indeed an anguish for the disbelievers. And lo! it is absolute truth. So glorify the name of thy Tremendous Lord. (Quran; 69:38-52)




Islamic Revival اسلام کی تجدید

Unlike the earlier tradition of Islamic philosophy from al-Farabi to Averroës, which had consciously cultivated political science and investigated the political dimension of philosophy and religion and the relation between philosophy and the community at large, the new approach from its inception lacked genuine interest in these questions, had no appreciation for political philosophy, and had only a benign toleration for the affairs of the world. No worthwhile political philosopher or reformer came up with solution to real problems confronted by Islamic world. The divine guidance in the form of Qur’an and Sunnah of Prophet (peace be upon him) was available so that: “they may ponder its revelations, and that men of understanding may learn lessons from it.”(Qur’an;38:29). But the ‘men of understanding’ were rare.  Centuries have passed but Muslims have failed to correct the historic mistake, to set the priorities right. The result is frustration, extremism, disunity, loss of dignity, self esteem, poverty, deprivation, illiteracy, oppression, economic and political domination by West and others economic giants. Keep reading <<<Islamic Thought & Revivalists>>>
آج کل لوگوں کی زبانوں سے اسلام کی تجدید کی ضرورت کی بات بہت سننے کو ملتی ہے لیکن دین کی تجدید کا مطلب اس میں پیوند کاری نہیں ہے، نہ ایمان کے کسی شعبہ کو نظرانداز کرکے جدید تہذیب کے ساتھ قدم بقدم چلنا ہے۔

اسلامی تجدید کا مفہوم ایک ہی ہو سکتا ہے کہ ماحول، عام جہالت، ذاتی خواہشات اور حکمرانوں کے انحرافات وغیرہ کی وجہ سے اس پر جوگرد پڑ گئی ہو، اسے صاف شفاف کر دیا جائے جیسے پانی کو صاف کرکے پینے کیلئے تیار کیا جاتا ہے۔ رسول اللہ ﷺ نے فرمایا تھا کہ اس علم کو ہرنسل کے مستند لوگ اٹھائیں گے جو اس سے غلوپسندوں کی تحریف، باطل پسندوں کی ایجادات اور جاہلوں کی تاویلات دور کریں گے۔ ان مختصر الفاظ میں رسول اللہ ﷺ نے ساری بات سمیٹ لی ہے۔ قدیم زمانے میں غلو پسند لوگ زندگی سے نفرت کرتے تھے، شادی نہیں کرتے تھے، ہمیشہ روزے رکھتے تھے اور رات رات بھر جاگ کر نمازیں پڑھتے رہتے تھے لیکن اسلام نے انہیں اعتدال اور غلو سے کنارہ کشی کرنا سکھایا۔ ہم دیکھ چکے ہیں کہ قرآن کی بعض سورتوں کے فضائل میں کچھ لوگوں نے حدیثیں گھڑیں جب ان سے کہا گیا کہ یہ کیا کر رہے ہو جبکہ رسول اللہ ﷺ فرما چکے ہیں کہ جس نے مجھ پر جان بوجھ کر جھوٹ باندھا وہ اپنا ٹھکانا جہنم بنالے تو کہنے لگے ہم تو آپؐ کیلئے جھوٹ بول رہے ہیں آپؐ کے خلاف نہیں۔ یہ باطل پسندوں کی ایجاد کی مثال ہے۔ 

یہی صورت دین میں ہر بدعت کی ہے۔ لوگوں نے گھٹیا روایات کو رواج دیکر امت کو ٹھپ کرکے رکھ دیا ہے جبکہ دنیا تیز آندھی کی طرح آگے کی طرف دوڑ رہی ہے۔ رہیں جاہلوں کی تاویلیں تو ہمارے دور نزدیک کی تاریخ میں اس کی کتنی مثالیں ملتی ہیں۔ کچھ دنوں پہلے جزیرہ عرب کے کسی احمق کی کتاب دیکھنے کوملی جس میں اس نے یہ دعویٰ کیا تھا کہ اس کی چالیس سے زیادہ دلیلیں ہیں کہ زمین اپنی جگہ ٹھہری ہوئی ہے اور سورج اس کے اردگرد گردش کر رہا ہے میں نے پڑھا تو معلوم تو معلوم ہوا چالیس سے زیادہ قرآنی آیات کی اوٹ پٹانگ تفسیر کی گئی تھی تاکہ یہ ثابت کیا جا سکے کہ اسلام اور سائنس ایک دوسرے کی ضد ہیں۔ اس طرح کی حرکتیں کبھی نادانی کی بنا پر سرزد ہوتی ہیں کبھی کچھ مفاد پرست لوگ کسی ملت دشمن کے زرخرید آلہ کاربن کرکرتے ہیں۔ تجدید اسلام کا مطلب ہے آسمان سے نازل ہونے والے اصل دین کی طرف لوٹنا۔ اچھا نمونہ اور اعلیٰ مثال تو حضرت محمدؐ اور آپؐ کے صحابہؓ کی سیرت ہی سے لی جا سکتی ہے کیونکہ وہی صحیح اسلام کی نمائندگی کرتے ہیں اور وہی اتباع کے لائق ہیں۔ بعد میں زمانہ گزرنے کے ساتھ انحراف پیدا ہوتا گیا اگر کوئی پچھلی صدی یا اس سے پہلے کی صدی کو نمونہ بنانا چاہے تو صرف کجی تک پہنچے گا کیونکہ انہیں صدیوں کے انحرافات نے ہمیں دنیا میں سب سے پیچھے دھکیل دیا ہے۔ آج انفرادی حکومتوں کی جن برائیوں سے ہم دوچار ہیں وہ کئی صدیوں سے ہمارا پیچھا کر رہی ہیں۔ ہم جس طرز عمل سے روشنی حاصل کر سکتے ہیں وہ حضور رسول اللہ ﷺ اور خلفائے راشدینؓ کے دور کا شورائی نظام ہے، جب حکمران غرور و تکبر سے دور رہتا تھا، حق کے سامنے جھکتا تھا، اہل علم سے مشورہ کرتا تھا اور اپنے آپ کو امت کا خادم سمجھتا تھا۔ جو اپنی مقررہ تنخواہ سے زیادہ نہیں لے سکتا تھا۔ جسے بلاتکلف ٹوک دیا جاتا تھا کہ خداسے ڈرو، جو اپنے خاندان کو عوام کا حصہ سمجھتا تھا، اگر غلطی کرتا تھا تو اپنے آپ کو سزا دیتا تھا جیسا کہ حضرت عمرؓ نے بڑے افسران سے کہا تھا کہ میں نے رسول اللہ ﷺ کو دیکھا ہے کہ خود سے بدلہ دلایا کرتے تھے۔ نظام حکومت کی یہی روایات مالی معاملات، عدالتی نظام اور اجتماعی معاملات میں بھی جاری تھیں بلکہ عبادتی امور میں بھی۔ پھرمسلمان دھیرے دھیرے اس راستے سے دور ہوتے گئے یہاں تک کہ ان کا شمار دنیا میں سب سے پیچھے یعنی تیسری دنیا میں ہونے لگا۔ کیونکہ انہوں نے اپنے نبیؐ کی سنت اور اپنے بزرگوں کی روایات کو بھلا دیا اور دین کی صحیح سمجھ سے دور ہوگئے۔ زمانہ اور حالات کے ساتھ وسائل بھی بدل جاتے ہیں۔ شوریٰ حق ہے اور پہلے اس پر عمل بہت آسان تھا۔ جو لوگ موجود ہوتے تھے ان سے رائے لے لی جاتی تھی۔ لیکن اب اس کیلئے ایک مرتبہ اور منظم نظام چاہیے۔ اب جو لوگ فکر اسلامی کی تجدیدکرنا چاہتے ہیں انہیں ان وسائل پر غور کرنا ہوگا اور وہ صورت اختیار کرنی ہوگی جس سے مقصد حاصل ہو اور اسلام کے محاسن اجاگر ہوں۔ ادھرادھر سے استفادہ کرنے میں بھی کوئی حرج نہیں۔ عالم اسلام میں کتنے ہی المناک واقعات رونما ہو چکے ہیں جن کے خلاف ساری دنیا کی راجدھانیوں میں مظاہرے ہوئے لیکن کسی عرب راجدھانی میں کوئی مظاہرہ نہیں ہوا۔ کیوں ؟ اس لئے کہ ظالمانہ نظام ہائے حکومت کے تحت لوگ اتنے دبائے ہوئے ہیںکہ بول بھی نہیں سکتے ، وہ جانتے ہیں کہ اگر وہ سڑکوں پر نکلے تو گولیوں سے بھون ڈالے جائیں گے۔ ان کی حکومتیں نہیں چاہتی ہیں کہ ان میں اتنی جرأت پیدا ہو۔ اگر آج وہ کسی بیرونی واقعہ کے خلاف احتجاج کیلئے نکلتے ہیں تو کل انہی کے خلاف اٹھ کھڑے ہوں گے اس لئے پہلے ہی سے دروازہ بند رکھنا چاہیے۔ آپ نے دیکھا انفرادی آمرانہ نظام کے رواج اور شورائیت کے فقدان نے معاملہ کہاں تک پہنچا دیا۔ ساری دنیا میں کرپشن کی روک تھام کے انتظامات ہیں۔ اسلامی خصوصاً عرب ممالک میں چند لوگوں کے ہاتھوں میں بے حساب دولت سمٹی ہوئی ہے اور بغیر محنت کی کمائی ہے۔ کیا اس کجی کا اسلام سے کوئی تعلق ہے؟ ہمارے دین نے تو سب سے پہلے بدعنوانی کے خلاف اعلان جنگ کیا تھا پھر ہم نے اس سے بچنے بچانے کیلئے کیا انتظامات کیے؟ کچھ لوگوں نے کبھی کبھی وعظ و تلقین سے کام لے لیا، باقی نے خاموشی ہی میں عافیت سمجھی۔ ہم میں چھوٹی چھوٹی چیزوں پر بھڑکنے والے بہت ہیں، بڑی باتوں پر توجہ دینے والا کوئی نہیں۔ خدا کے علاوہ کسی دوسرے نام پر قسم کھانا تو شرک بتایا جاتا ہے لیکن یہ نہیں بتایاجاتا کہ ریاکاری بھی گناہ ہے اور ظالموں کی خوشامد تو کفر تک پہنچ سکتی ہے۔ اب اگر ہمارے پاس مرض کے علاج کیلئے دوائیں نہیں اور دوسروں سے دوائیں لیں تو لوگ ہم پر الزام لگانے لگتے ہیں۔ سچ تو یہ ہے کہ اسلام کی ترجمانی کے دعویدار بیشتر ناسمجھ ہیں اور وہ اسلام کو زندہ کرنے کے بجائے موت سے ہمکنار کر رہے ہیں۔ ہر میدان میں خود کفالت ناگزیر ہے ۔ بغیر اس کے کوئی قوم کامیاب نہیں ہوسکتی۔ دینی فکر کی تجدید کیلئے پختہ عقل اور پاک دلی درکار ہے۔ وہ تاریخ کی غلطیوں اور کوتاہیوں پر گہری نظر چاہتی ہے۔ وہ کتاب و سنت میں گہری مہارت چاہتی ہے۔ وہ گندی اور پست ذہنیت اور روایت پرستی کی بجائے صائب نظر، بلند خیالی، پاکیزہ ذہنیت اور گہری بصیرت چاہتی ہے۔


Ignorance, Progress & Muslims

Sadly, we are just not prepared to face reality. The reason Muslims have been left so far behind is their refusal to embrace modern education, and to cling to rote learning and dogma. By confusing Western thought and influence with rationality, we think we are better Muslims by rejecting modernity. As a prime example of this, consider the Ottoman refusal to install printing presses when they were first invented. The reason given was that this would result in the mass production of holy texts by machines instead of being calligraphed. Keep reading >>>>


عید مبارک Eid Mubarak

Say, "Who prohibited the nice things GOD has created for His creatures, and the good provisions? Say, "Such provisions are to be enjoyed in this life by those who believe. Moreover, the good provisions will be exclusively theirs on the Day of Resurrection." We thus explain the revelations for people who know. Say, "My Lord prohibits only evil deeds, be they obvious or hidden, and sins, and unjustifiable aggression, and to set up beside GOD powerless idols, and to say about GOD what you do not know." [Quran; 7:32-33]

Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر‎ ʻĪd al-Fiṭr], "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festiva and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm). This has to do with the communal aspects of the fast, which expresses many of the basic values of the Muslim community; e.g., empathy for the poor, charity, worship, steadfastness, patience etc. Fasting is also believed by some scholars to extol fundamental distinctions, lauding the power of the spiritual realm, while acknowledging the subordination of the physical realm. It also teaches a Muslim to stay away from worldly desires and to focus entirely on the Lord and thank Him for his blessings. It is a rejuvenation of the religion and it creates a stronger bond between the Muslim and his Lord. After the end of Ramadan, is a big celebration of Eid that is very importance Islamic tradition. Keep reading >>>>

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New Work on Hadith in Turkey: ترکی میں احادیث کی جدید تحقیق اور ترتیب

Interview of Professor Mehmet Gormez, vice-president of Turkey’s Religious Affairs Directorate, or Diyanet. Transcript of the interview, translated from Turkish:
Q. What is the aim of the project?
A. The religion of Islam is based on two main sources (the Koran and the hadith). As time passes people have difficulty understanding (their religion). This is true of all religions. As the Koran is a major source of knowledge, many commentaries have been written through history. The hadith are very dispersed but also a major source. Each hadith has a reason, each hadith has a relation with culture and geography. When this is lost, it becomes hard to understand what the Prophet meant by the words used. Therefore, many efforts have been made (to explain the meaning). But in the modern world, people misinterpret this knowledge. I liken this source of knowledge (the hadith) to a pharmacy. When a person gets sick, he goes to the pharmacy and thinks that every medicine can be used in the same way. But some pills can end up making you feel worse, not better … A person may not know what kind of chemicals a medicine contains but
happily takes it. At present, we have been using the hadith lacking methodology. And this brings many problems with it… By taking advantage of methods used in the modern world to understand religious texts, we aim to make (them) better understood, better practised and to purify them of mistakes.

Q. Will you be removing any hadith from the existing corpus?
A. In our study, each hadith is a picture made up of different pieces, like a jigsaw puzzle. Our aim is to show all pieces of the picture. Each word of our Prophet is like a
picture made up of different pieces.. One piece tells of Arab geography, one piece is related to the desert. Without each piece, we cannot understand or see the whole picture. In order to see the whole picture, we need each piece. This is a scientific and academic study. It’s not a radical reform or revision. We have a methodological approach.

Q. How many hadith are in existence? And of those can we say how many are to be revised under this project?
A. We now have the advantage of technology. As I discovered yesterday, there are 159,000 hadith or narrations. But our Western friends are surprised when they hear this figure. They say ‘did the Prophet really say so much?’ The reason for this is that there is much repetition. For example, in the Buhari text there are 7,000 hadith but 4,000 of these are repetitions. When you exclude the repetitions in the total 159,000, you are left with about 20,000 hadith. But in order to see the connections of geography, for example, we take all the hadith. And we can scan all these 159,000 hadiths with computers in just two minutes. Each hadith comes with a ‘health report’ about whether it is authentic or not. But some of these reports are right, some are wrong. Each hadith is made up of two pieces. One is the text, the other is the narrative link. We evaluate the issue from both perspectives. There’s textual criticism and narrative criticism. But it’s not right to give a definite number (of inauthentic texts) as that differs through history and is now being studied by scholars. In some hadith there were three to four people involved in the chain of transmission from the Prophet before they were written down in books…
Q. What is the ultimate aim of your work?
A. There are three aims: firstly, to isolate misunderstandings that stem from history, secondly to make clear how much is cultural, how much is traditional and how much is religious, thirdly to help people today to understand them right. Let me tell you of a discussion I had with Yusuf Islam (the former singer Cat Stevens) whom I met in 1996. He was wearing a thin white cloak. He had a black turban on his head. He had a long beard. And I was wearing a suit. I was introduced as a hadith scholar… “Are my clothes in conformity with Sunni Muslim teaching?” he asked me. I said: “Imagine a battle between the Prophet and his followers and infidels. What was the difference in their clothes? They were all wearing cloaks and turbans…” Then I asked him “What if our Prophet had gone to Siberia and did not live in a climate of 50 degrees Celsius? Would wearing fur be considered irreligious? It was Ramadan and we were about to end our fast. He ended his with dates (according to the Arab tradition) and I ate olives. I told him there are no dates in my country. On clothing, I said we should dress in a way that does not make sexuality obvious.
Q. What about punishments laid out in the hadith?
A. Islam is misunderstood here. For example, you cannot show me from the 600-year history of the Ottoman Empire a case of a person being stoned for adultery or a thief whose hand was amputated… You don’t see such things in the hadith or the Koran. Punishment is not on our agenda. We are putting the emphasis on belief, on worship, morality, individual and social life, women’s rights, relations between the individual and God, between individuals, between people and nature. We have no aim to put issues from history (such as punishments) to the agenda.
Q. Will your work lead to changes in the way women are treated or perceived?
A. The issue of women’s rights will not be emphasised but it will be one of some 600 issues. We cannot say how much the project will be effective (in improving the lot of women) but it should help prevent misunderstandings.
Q. What about so-called ‘honour killings’?
A. There’s no hadith on this issue. This is a tradition dating back to the period of pre-Islamic ignorance. This has no relation to religion. Honour killings, the burying of female children — we can identify these as (pre-Islamic) Arab ignorance that have no relation with Islam. In fact, the Jewish Torah and the Christian Bible are much more problematic than the Koran (for women’s rights). We have to understand the texts very well, and also we have to determine those that are shaped by culture. If a religious man from the
Western world sees bad behaviour here as a result of the Koran, he makes a mistake because the text in his hands (the Bible) is even more problematic.

Q. How long have you been working on this project?
A. We started work on this project two years ago. It will end by the end of this year and result in six volumes, which we hope to translate into English, Arabic and Russian too.
Q. Why did you decide to embark on this project? Is the AK Party government involved in this decision?
A. Our project has no relation with politics. It’s an academic team … There was a similar study in the first years of the Republic (in 1924).
Q. Has there been any reaction so far from other parts of the Muslim world and if so what was the reaction? Have foreign Islamic scholars been involved at all?
A. There have been no similar studies of the hadith in the Arab world. Turkey comes from a different tradition. We cannot discard the Ottoman tradition. It was open-minded. We can discuss anything here and there is a good level of scientific knowledge in Turkey. For these reasons, it’s important to do this work here in Turkey… The Diyanet wants to share these books with people at mosques. We do not plan to sell the books.
Q. So to sum up is it fair to say this project is an attempt to modernise people’s understanding of their religion?
A. Muhammad Iqbal said ‘Our Prophet stands on the threshold between the old and the new, old in terms of knowledge but new in terms of the message. Our aim is to understand our Prophet’s message to this age in a better way.

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