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28.2.15

Supplications of believers responded by God (Quran:40:60)

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادۡعُوۡنِىۡۤ اَسۡتَجِبۡ لَـكُمۡؕ اِنَّ الَّذِيۡنَ يَسۡتَكۡبِرُوۡنَ عَنۡ عِبَادَتِىۡ سَيَدۡخُلُوۡنَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِيۡنَ‏ 
(40:60)

 Your Lord said: “Pray to Me, and I will accept your prayers. Surely those who wax too proud to worship Me shall enter Hell, utterly abased.”
Commentary:
That is, all the powers to answer our prayers rest in Me only; so you should not pray to others but pray to Me. To understand the spirit of this verse well, three points should be comprehended properly:

First, man prays only to that being whom he regards as All- Hearing and All-Seeing and Possessor of supernatural powers. And the real motive of prayer for man is the internal feeling that the natural means and resources of the material world are not enough to remove any of his troubles and to fulfill any of his needs, or are not proving to be enough. Therefore, it is inevitable that he should turn to a being who is possessor of supernatural powers and authority. Man invokes that Being even without having seen Him; he invokes Him at all times, at all places, and under all circumstances; he invokes Him in solitude, aloud as well as in a low voice, and even in the depths of his heart. He does so inevitably on the basis of the belief that that Being is watching him everywhere, is also hearing whatever he has in his heart, and possesses such absolute powers that, it can come to the help of the supplicant wherever he is, and can help him out of every trouble and difficulty. After having known this truth about the prayer, it remains no longer difficult for man to understand that the one who invokes another than Allah for help, commits shirk absolutely and purely and clearly, for he believes those attributes to be belonging to the other being, which only belong to Allah. Had he not believed the other being to be an associate of Allah in the divine attributes, he would never have even thought of invoking it for help.

Second, one should fully understand that man’s merely thinking about a being that it is the possessor of powers and authority, does not necessitate that it should actually become possessor of the powers and authority. Being possessor of powers and authority is a factual matter, which is not dependent on somebody’s understanding or not understanding it. The one who is actually the Possessor of the powers will in any case remain the Possessor whether man regards Him so or not. And the one who is not in reality the possessor, will not be able to have any share whatever in the powers only because man has believed it to be possessing the powers. Now, the fact of the matter is that the Being Who is All-Powerful, All-Hearing, All-Seeing, and Who is actually controlling the whole Universe is only Allah, and He alone is Possessor of all powers and authority. There is none else in this Universe, who may have any power to hear the prayers and to answer them or reject them. As against this factual matter, if some people of themselves start entertaining the belief that some prophets, saints, angels, jinns, planets or imaginary gods also are share-holders in the powers, the reality will not change in any way whatsoever. The Owner will remain the Owner and the helpless servants will remain the servants.

Thirdly, the one who invokes others than Allah behaves like the supplicant who takes his petition to a government office, but leaving aside the real officer who has authority, presents it before one of the other supplicants who may be present there with his petition, and then starts imploring him humbly, saying: you possess all the powers, and yours is the only authority here; so, you alone can fulfill my needs. Such a conduct, in the first place, is in itself highly foolish, but in a case like this it also amounts to high insolence, because the real officer who has the authority, is present and before his very eyes applications and petitions are being made before another, apart from him. Then this ignorance and folly reaches its height when the person before whom the petition is being presented makes the petitioner understand over and over again that he himself is a petitioner like him and possesses no power at all, and that the real officer who has the powers is present, and he should make his petition before him. But in spite of this counsel and warning, the foolish person goes on saying: You are my lord, you alone can fulfill my need.

Keeping these three things in view, one should try to understand what Allah has said here: Call upon Me, I shall answer your prayers, it is for Me to accept them.

Two things deserve special attention in this verse:

(1) Dua (prayer) and ibadat (worship) have been used as synonyms here. The prayer of the first sentence has been called worship in the second. This makes it explicit that prayer itself is worship, rather the essence of worship.

(2) The words “Who disdain My worship” have been used for those who do not pray to Allah. This shows that praying to Allah is the very requirement of one’s servitude to Him, and turning away from Him amounts to being vain and arrogant.

According to Numan bin Bashir, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The prayer is the very essence of worship. Then he recited this verse. (Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Abu Daud, Nasai, Ibn Majah, Ibn Abu Hatim, Ibn Jarir). According to Anas, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Prayer is the marrow of worship. (Trimidhi). Abu Hurairah says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Allah becomes angry with him who does not ask Him for anything. (Tirmidhi).

In the light of the above, the enigma that often causes confusion in the minds is also resolved. In connection with prayer, people say that when the evil or the good destiny is in the control of Allah and whatever He has already decreed in accordance with His dominant wisdom and expedience has to take place inevitably. What is then the use of the prayer? This is a serious misunderstanding which destroys the importance of prayer from the heart of man, and with this false notion even if man prays, his prayer would be soulless. The above verse of the Quran removes this misunderstanding in two ways:

In the first place, Allah says in clear words: Call upon Me: I will answer your prayers. This proves that fate or destiny is not something which, God forbid, might have tied the hands of Allah Himself also, and the powers to answer the prayer might have been withdrawn from Him. The creatures have no power to avert or change the decrees of Allah: but Allah Himself certainly has the power to change His decrees and decisions on hearing a servant’s prayer and petition. The other thing that has been stated in this verse is that whether a prayer is accepted or not, it is never without an advantage. The servant by presenting his petition before his Lord and by praying to Him acknowledges His Lordship and Supremacy and admits his own servitude and helplessness before Him. This expression of servitude is in itself worship, rather the essence of worship of whose reward the servant will in no case be deprived, irrespective of whether he is granted the particular thing for which he had prayed or not.

We get a full explanation of these two themes in the sayings of the Prophet (peace be upon him). The following traditions throw light on the first theme. Salman Farsi relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Nothing can avert destiny but the prayer. (Tirmidhi). That is, no one has the power to change the decisions of Allah but Allah Himself can change His decisions, and this happens when the servant prays to Him.

Jabir bin Abdullah says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whenever man prays to Allah, Allah either gives him the same which he prayed for, or prevents a calamity of the same degree from befalling him provided that he does not pray for a sin or for severing relations with the kindred. (Tirmidhi). Another Hadith on the same subject has been reported by Abu Saeed Khudri in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whenever a Muslim prays, unless it be a prayer for a sin or for severing relations with a kindred, Allah grants it in one of the three ways: Either his prayer is granted in this very world, or it is preserved for rewarding him in the Hereafter, or a disaster of the same degree is prevented from befalling him. (Musnad Ahmad).

Abu Hurairah says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whenever one of you prays, he should not say: O God, forgive me if You so please, show me mercy if You so please, grant me provisions if You so please, but he should say definitely: O God, fulfill my such and such need. (Bukhari). According to another tradition from Abu Hurairah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Pray to Allah with the certainty that He will answer it. (Tirmidhi). In still another tradition Abu Hurairah has reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The servant’s prayer is granted provided that he does not pray for a sin or for severing connections with the kindred, and is not hasty. It was asked: What is being hasty, O Messenger of Allah? He replied: Being hasty is that man should say: I have prayed much, too much, but I see that my prayer is nor being answered. Then he should be tired of it and give up praying. (Muslim). The other theme is explained by the following traditions:

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Nothing is as praiseworthy in the sight of Allah as the prayer. (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah).

Ibn Masud says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Ask of Allah His bounty, because Allah likes that He should be asked. (Tirmidhi).

Ibn Umar and Muadh bin Jabal state that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The prayer is in any case beneficial, both with respect to those calamities which have descended and with respect to those which have not yet descended. So, O servants of Allah, you must always pray. (Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad). Anas says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Each one of you should ask his every need of Allah; so much so that even if his shoe-lace breaks, he should pray for it to Allah. (Tirmidhi). That is, even in matters which man feels are in his own power, he should invoke Allah’s help for it before planning his own devices for it, for in no matter can man succeed only on the basis of his own devices without the help and succor of Allah, and praying before devising plans means that the servant is at all times acknowledging the supremacy of Allah and admitting his own helplessness.
(Tafheem ul Quran)

http://www.islamicstudies.info/tafheem.php?sura=40&verse=51&to=60

یعنی دعائیں قبول کرنے اور نہ کرنے کے جملہ اختیارات میرے پاس ہیں، لہٰذا تم دوسروں سے دعائیں نہ مانگو بلکہ مجھ مانگو۔ اس آیت کی روح کو ٹھیک ٹھیک سمجھنے کے لیے تین باتیں اچھی طرح سمجھ لینی چاہییں : 
اول یہ کہ دعا آدمی صرف اس ہستی سے مانگتا ہے جس کو وہ سمیع و بصیر اور فوق الفطری اقتدار (Supernatural powers)کا مالک سمجھتا ہے، اور دعا مانگنے کا محرک دراصل آدمی کا یہ اندرونی احساس ہوتا ہے کہ عالم اسباب کے تحت فطری ذرائع و وسائل اس کی کسی تکلیف کو رفع کرنے یا کسی حاجت کو پورا کرنے کے لیے کافی نہیں ہیں یا کافی ثابت نہیں ہو رہے ہیں، اس لیے سکی فوق الفطری اقتدار کی مالک ہستی سے رجوع کرنا نا گزیر ہے۔ بآواز بلند ہی نہیں، چپکے چپکے بھی بکارتا ہے، بلکہ دل ہی دل میں اس سے مدد کی التجائیں کرتا ہے۔ یہ سب کچھ لازماً اس عقیدے کی بنا پر ہوتا ہے کہ وہ ہستی اس کو ہر جگہ ہر حال میں دیکھ رہی ہے۔ اس کے دل کی بات بھی سن رہی ہے۔ اور اس کو ایسی قدرت مطلقہ حاصل ہے کہ اسے پکارنے والا جہاں بھی ہو وہ اس کی مدد کو پہنچ سکتی ہے  اور اس کی بگڑی بنا سکتی ہے۔ دعا کی اس حقیقت کو جان لینے کے بعد یہ سمجھنا آدمی کے لیے کچھ بھی مشکل نہیں رہتا کہ جو شخص اللہ کے سوا کسی اور ہستی کو مدد کے لیے پکارتا ہے وہ در حقیقت قطعی اور خالص اور صریح شرک کا ارتکاب کرتا ہے، کیونکہ وہ اس ہستی کے  اندر ان صفات کا اعتقاد رکھتا ہے جو صرف اللہ تعالیٰ ہی کی صفات ہیں۔ اگر وہ اس کو ان خدائی صفات میں اللہ کا شریک نہ سمجھتا تو اس سے دعا مانگنے کا تصور تک کبھی اس کے ذہن میں نہ آ سکتا تھا۔
دوسری بات جو اس سلسلے میں اچھی طرح سمجھ لینی چاہیے وہ یہ ہے کہ کسی ہستی کے متعلق آدمی کا اپنی جگہ یہ سمجھ بیٹھنا کہ وہ اختیارات کی مالک ہے، اس سے یہ لازم نہیں آ جاتا کہ وہ فی الواقع مالک اختیارات ہو جاۓ۔ مالک اختیارات ہونا تو ایک امر واقعی ہے جو کسی کے سمجھنے یا نہ سمجھنے پر موقوف نہیں ہے۔ جو در حقیقت اختیارات کا مالک ہے وہ بہر حال مالک ہی رہے گا، خواہ آپ اسے مالک سمجھیں یا نہ سمجھیں۔ اور جو حقیقت میں مالک نہیں ہے، اس کو محض یہ بات کہ آپ نے اسے مالک سمجھ لیا ہے، اختیارات میں ذرہ برابر بھی کوئی حصّہ نہ دلوا سکے گی۔ اب یہ بات ایک امر واقعی ہے کہ قادر مطلق اور مدبر کائنات اور سمیع و بصیر ہستی صرف اللہ تعالیٰ ہی کی ہے اور وہی کُلی طور پر اختیارات کا مالک ہے۔ دوسری کوئی ہستی بھی اس پوری کائنات میں ایسی نہیں ہے جو دعائیں سننے اور ان پر قبولیت یا عدم قبولیت کی صورت میں کوئی کار روائی کرنے کے اختیارات رکھتی ہو۔اس امر واقعی کے خلاف اگر لوگ اپنی جگہ کچھ انبیاء اور اولیاء اور فرشتوں اور جِنوں اور سیاروں اور فرضی دیوتاؤں کو اختیارات میں شریک سمجھ بیٹھیں تو اس سے حقیقت میں ذرہ برابر بھی کوئی فرق رو نما نہ ہو گا۔ مالک  مالک ہی رہے گا اور بے اختیار بندے، بندے ہی رہیں گے۔  
تیسری  بات یہ ہے کہ اللہ تعالیٰ کے سوا دوسروں سے دعا مانگنا بالکل ایسا ہے جیسے کوئی شخص درخواست لکھ کر ایوان حکومت کی طرف جاۓ مگر اصل حاکم ذی اختیار  کو چھوڑ کر وہاں جو دوسرے سائلین اپنی حاجتیں لیے بیٹھے ہوں انہی میں سے کسی ایک کے آگے اپنی درخواست پیش کر دے اور پھر ہاتھ جوڑ جوڑ کر اس سے التجائیں کرتا چلا جاۓ کہ حضور ہی سب کچھ ہیں، آپ ہی کا یہاں حکم چلتا ہے، میری مراد آپ ہی بر لائیں گے تو بر آۓ گی۔ یہ حرکت اول تو بجاۓ خود سخت حماقت و جہالت ہے لیکن ایسی حالت میں یہ انتہائی گستاخی بھی بن جاتی ہے جبکہ اصل حاکم ذی اختیار سامنے موجود ہو اور عین اس کی موجود گی میں اسے چھوڑ کر کسی دوسرے کے سامنے درخواستیں اور التجائیں پیش کی جا رہی ہوں۔ پھر یہ جہالت اپنے کمال پر اس وقت پہنچ جاتی ہے جب وہ شخص جس کے سامنے درخواست پیش کی جا رہی ہو خود  بار بار  اس کو سمجھائے کہ میں تو خود تیری ہی طرح کا ایک سائل ہوں، میرے ہاتھ میں کچھ نہیں ہے، اصل حاکم سامنے موجود ہیں،   تو ان کی سرکار میں اپنی درخواست پیش کر، مگر اس کے سمجھانے اور منع کرنے کے باوجود یہ احمق کہتا ہی چلا جاۓ کہ میرے سرکار تو آپ ہیں، میرا کام آپ ہی بنائیں گے تو بنے گا۔
ان تین باتوں کو ذہن میں  رکھ کر اللہ تعالیٰ کے اس ارشاد کو سمجھنے کی کوشش کیجیے کہ مجھے پکارو، تمہاری دعاؤں کا جواب دینے والا میں ہوں، انہیں قبول کرنا میرا کام ہے

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